Monorail! Monorail! Monorail!

If you grew up in Rochester in the last quarter of the 20th century, there’s a good chance you took at least one ride on the monorail at Midtown Plaza.

Midtown’s monorail figures prominently in the holiday memories of many Rochesterians, but as it happens, the mall’s elevated train was not made locally, nor was it unique to Rochester.


The colorful monorail in 2007. Photographer: Ira Srole.

The first kiddie train of this kind was developed in the 1940s. Illinois-based inventor, Clinton B. Clark, got the idea for the tot-sized tram while working for a department store in Milwaukee. The company’s president expressed the desire for a train that would run above the store’s display cases, thereby conserving floor space for retail items.

Clark put his tinkering skills to work at his home in Oak Park (that’s a suburb), and in 1942, filed a patent for his overhead monorail train.

He spent the 1940s and 1950s hanging monorails from the ceilings of the toy departments of several major retailers including Wanamaker’s in Philadelphia, Sears in Chicago, and Rich’s in Atlanta. Clark claimed that his invention attracted about 100,000 riders to each store annually (and by gum, it put them on the map!).

Clark’s monorail instantly attracted Midtown Plaza’s promotional manager when he saw one on display at the convention of the International Council on Shopping Centers in 1968. As Robert M. Fender explained to the Democrat & Chronicle, “The other items displayed for promotional purposes were ice shows and puppet shows and similar items…Then I saw this monorail and just knew Midtown couldn’t go through another Christmas without it.”

Apart from being infinitely more exciting than a puppet show, the monorail bore additional advantages to retailers.

Not only did the overhead train allow stores to maximize their floor space for purchasable goods, but it also gave its little passengers a panoramic view of these same products.

Clark maintained that the monorail would attract repeat visits from children, who, in turn, would draw their pocketbook-toting parents into the store.

Construction on Midtown Plaza’s bonafide electrified monorail began in September 1968, and its last piece was put in place mere minutes before the store opened for the train’s grand debut on November 29th.


Children lining up to ride the train in 2007. Photographer: Ira Srole.

Featuring two trains of two cars each, Midtown’s monorail accommodated 32 passengers at a time, and traveled three miles an hour along a circular route above the mall’s central concourse. The elevated train became an instant fixture of the holiday season in Rochester, drawing thousands of children every year between Thanksgiving and Christmas.


The monorail gliding above the central concourse during its final season in 2007. Photographer: Ira Srole.

The ride was briefly retired in the late 1990s, but resurrected during the 2000 Christmas season.

The revival was short-lived.

The train made its final stop on Christmas Eve 2007, two months after the plans to demolish Midtown Plaza were announced. The monorail was dismantled piece by piece and placed in a storage facility, where it sat untouched for years.

During the demolition of Midtown Plaza, the City made arrangements with the New York State Office of Parks and Recreation and Historic Preservation, which allowed the City to donate the train as long as it was exhibited in a publicly accessible space and not used for profit. The City offered the artifact to a variety of local institutions, but the train had no takers until this year.

This past summer, City Council voted to send the relic railcars to the New York Museum of Transportation in Rush, NY. A car will also be on display at the Roc Holiday Village in Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Park this December.

Though the monorail won’t run again–it wouldn’t meet the current electrical code–visitors can catch a glimpse of the timeworn train and relish in the memories of rides past.

-Emily Morry




Published in: on November 21, 2018 at 9:49 am  Comments (1)  

ABC: The American Brewing Company and Beer Brewing in Rochester, 1855-1950, Part 2

What does one do when the central focus of one’s manufacturing facility and very reason for being, is declared illegal? What is a businessman to do when his product has been banned outright, and if he continues to make the product, he risks going to jail? Many brewers faced this dilemma in 1917 when the Prohibition amendment was approved by Congress and passed to the states for ratification. The amendment passed in 1919 and went into effect in January 1920.

Fortunately, the officers of these firms had warning and had time to plan for an orderly transition. Some simply acquiesced to the new law and went out of business. Some, like Budweiser, refocused on the essential ingredients of their product. Anheuser-Busch sold malt extract and yeast (both legal products), which could be used to make varieties of bread. Of course, members of the public could (and did) use both products to make their own home-brewed beer!

ABC2-cider ad

Advertisement for Rochester Food Products Corporation,
Prohibition-Era Successor to the American Brewing Company
(Democrat and Chronicle, 27 October 1920)

Other companies went into business making other legal products. Rochester’s largest pre-Prohibition brewer, Bartholomay Brewing Company, was converted into a company selling dairy products (specifically milk, cream, butter and ice cream). In the case of the American Brewing Company (ABC), they diversified their manufacturing. They changed their name to the Rochester Food Products Corporation, selling malt extract (like Anheuser-Busch), as well as apple cider, vinegar, and Rochester Special “near beer,” a legal product that contained less than ½ of 1% (0.05) alcohol. Brewing of near beer meant the brewery was ideally positioned to commence brewing beer anew when restrictions were lifted in 1933.

Officially Prohibition ended  December 5, 1933 when the 21st Amendment (repealing the 18th Amendment) was ratified, but for beer manufacturers and drinkers it ended earlier. The Volstead Act (the enabling legislation of the 18th Amendment) had defined “intoxicating liquors” as having alcohol content above ½ of 1%. The act was later amended by the Harrison-Cullen Act, which stipulated that products with an alcohol content of 3.2% and below were not intoxicating. The latter act became effective on  April 7, 1933, legalizing beer sales. In recent years, the day has been celebrated as “National Beer Day.”

ABC2-malt ad

Advertisement for Liberty Beer by ABC’s Elmira Distributor
Robert G. Jennings (Elmira Star-Gazette, 19 May 1933

As noted earlier, five Rochester brewers resurfaced after Prohibition. ABC was one of them. Among their many post-1933 brands were American Bock Beer, American Porter, Apollo Beer, Liberty Beer and Seneca Ale. Arguably their most famous label was Tam O’Shanter, under which a number of different varieties were produced, including Bock Beer, Dry Hopped, Extra Pale Ale, Stock Ale, and Porter.

For nearly two decades thereafter, the firm operated profitably; however, by 1950, their market share had declined. Two factors, coming close together, pushed them toward dissolution. The first was a decline in available bituminous and anthracite stocks due to a nationwide coal strike that reduced available supplies. The firm applied to the Emergency Fuel Office for additional allocations for production purposes, but was refused. The other factor was the decision of Rochester brewery workers (by a vote of 519 to 8) to join the International Union of Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drinks and Distillery Workers.

In June 1950, the American Brewing Company’s officers notified the board that a vote would be held to liquidate the business. Days later, the stockholders voted to liquidate the company’s assets. A skeleton crew remained thereafter to conclude the remaining business, but by the end of June 1950, the doors at 440 Hudson Avenue were closed forever on what was once the oldest brewery in Rochester.

ABC2-414 hudson

Remains of The American Brewing Company (2018)
440 Hudson Avenue.

-Christopher Brennan


For More Information:

“Brewery Bares Plan to Go Out of Business,” Democrat and Chronicle, 1 June 1950, p. 26.

“Brewery Workers Vote for Union Shop Setup,” Democrat and Chronicle, 1 April 1950, p. 12.

A History of the Brewery and Liquor Industry of Rochester, N.Y. (Rochester, New York: Kearse Publishing Company, 1907).

Skeeter McDaniels, Brewed in Rochester: A Photographic History of Beer in Rochester, New York, 1885-1975 (Rochester, New York: Mountain Air Books, 2008).

J. Gordon Meier, The Story of the Genesee Brewing Company Incorporated of Rochester, New York (Rochester, New York: Meier, 1963).

“Plant, Offices Turn Down Heat to Conserve Fuel,” Democrat and Chronicle, 2 March 1950, p. 1.

Ruth Rosenberg-Naparsteck, “A Brief History of Brewing in Rochester,” Rochester History 54, no. 2 (Spring 1992).

Ruth Rosenberg-Naparsteck, “A Brief Look at the 20th Century Through the Lens of a Camera,” Rochester History 61, nos. 3-4 (Summer-Fall 1999).

“Stockholder Vote End of Brewery,” Democrat and Chronicle, 6 June 1950, p. 21.


Published in: on November 5, 2018 at 12:00 pm  Leave a Comment  

Wanted: Dead or Deader

Anyone who has spent time poring through historical newspapers has likely come across an intriguing headline or two. I’ve seen a fair share of them myself, but recently I stumbled upon something in an old want ads section that is truly in a league of its own.

On August 5th, 1920, the Democrat and Chronicle published the following advertisement:


From the Democrat & Chronicle, August 5, 1920.

The eyebrow-raising ad undoubtedly also raised questions among its readers. Was it the world’s most bizarre personal ad…man/woman seeks date with a ghost? Or did the paranormal house hunter have other ideas in mind?

The peculiar post, which hailed from an unknown person, became the subject of a few newspaper articles that August. The day after the ad was published, the D&C speculated as to its writer’s motives. Staff surmised that perhaps the individual was “an author looking for atmosphere,’’ or “a person with an unbalanced mind,” or just someone “seeking to escape the platitudes of politicians.”

To help readers identify the kind of building that might house a free-floating vaporous apparition, the newspaper offered a few guidelines.

Such a house, the D&C indicated, should have creaking stairs, strong drafts emanating from all doors, and a fireplace (so that the phantasm could be seen amidst the flames). The article also suggested that “some kind of power plant should be established outside to keep the wind howling around the corners.”

Missing from the aforementioned list were additional supernatural warning signs such as self-cooking poultry products, rogue refrigerators, and generally any kind of behavior that one would not expect to see in a major appliance.


Headline from the Democrat & Chronicle, August 18, 1920.

Within the week that the want ad was published, the D&C’s business office received 20 letters to be rerouted to the “ ‘man of mystery’ seeking the haunted house.”

The “man of mystery,” as it happened, turned out to be a woman. May Francis, the operator of a boarding house on Marshall Street, identified herself to the D&C following the commotion her ad had caused.  She confessed that she was “just seeking the chills, the thrills and the ghosts of a haunted house.”

HH-marshall map

The Ghost-curious Mrs. Francis ran a boarding house at 10 Marshall Street. The building and the block on which it stood no longer exist today. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.

Mrs. Francis informed the paper that she had encountered a few individuals over the years that had experienced apparitions or heard the clanking of chains in homes.

Her whole plan, Francis explained, was to “meet a real ghost in a real haunted house.”  In so doing, she hoped that she might discover whether ghosts were white or grey, and what accounted for the spooky noises that accompanied their appearance.

The boarding house proprietor ended up receiving several offers from area residents willing to assist her with her quest.

A typical letter read:

“Regarding your advertisement for location of a haunted house, let me lead you to one in Stone Road. All the thrills and the chills can be obtained here. Meet me by appointment—midnight preferred.”

For whatever reason, call it fate, call it luck, call it karma, one local resident did seemingly come through for Mrs. Francis.

The D&C insinuated as much in an article published on August 20th, which inquired, “now that the modest-appearing Marshall Street woman has her haunted house, what is she going to do with it?”

As Mrs. Francis owned a boarding house, the reporter wryly opined that “perhaps there is to be a boom in haunted houses…if the demand grows, development experts will throw in a few ghosts with the clothes chute or sleeping porch, and abandoned cemeteries will bring top-notch prices when cut up into building lots.”

The newspaper did not reach the ghost hunter for comment on her paranormal experience. Perhaps it had a greater effect than she had anticipated…

Happy Halloween!

-Emily Morry

Published in: on October 30, 2018 at 2:46 pm  Leave a Comment  

ABC: The American Brewing Company and Beer Brewing in Rochester, 1855-1950, Part 1

Although a number of newer, smaller, more specialized craft breweries have opened in the Rochester area in recent years, the Genesee Brewing Company remains the most influential member of the Rochester brewing community. Founded in 1878 (and celebrating its 140th anniversary as this is written), it is the oldest and largest brewery in New York State. For many people, when asked “How many breweries does Rochester have?” their answer will be “One.”

Given that perception, it may be surprising to know that in the lifetime of many older people, Rochester had as many as five major breweries after Prohibition: American Brewing; Cataract Brewing; Genesee Brewing; Rochester Brewing; and Standard Brewing. The latter closed its doors in 1970, leaving Genesee as the sole survivor of the group. What may be even more surprising is that in the 19th century, Rochester had as many as two dozen breweries!

The reality of that fact came home to this author when a library patron came in to ask about a long-gone beer brand, Tam O’Shanter Beer. The brand belonged to one of the five post-Prohibition companies, the American Brewing Company (ABC). ABC followed a path similar to many of the breweries in Rochester and elsewhere, and so will serve as a useful case study in Rochester’s brewing history.


Advertisement for Tam O’Shanter Lager Beer and Ales,
Brewed by the American Brewing Company, Rochester, New York
(1949 Rochester City Directory)

The earliest brewery in Rochester was the Aqueduct Spring Brewery, opened by Nathan Lyman on South Water Street in 1819. The later growth in breweries was due to the influx of Germans to the area, particularly after the Revolution of 1848. Among those immigrants were Christian Meyer (17 September 1818-4 August 1905) and Frederick Loebs (21 February 1830-8 March 1885). In 1855, the partners established their brewery on the corner of Hudson Avenue and Boardwell Street under the name of The Meyer and Loebs Brewery. Six years later, the partners built a larger facility at Hudson and Chemung Street.

In 1877, Loebs’ son, Frederick Conrad Loebs (22 October 1854-5 November 1926), traveled to St. Louis to extend his knowledge of the industry. Returning to Rochester two years later, he entered the family firm and changed the name of the company to the Lion Brewing Company. In 1885, the name was changed again to the Loebs Brothers Brewing Company, and in 1889, the name was changed for the last time to the American Brewing Company.

By 1907, the company had moved yet again and occupied two blocks. The main building was situated on Hudson Avenue, bordered by Merrimac and Wadsworth Streets and split by Gilmore Street.

ABC-1910 map

The location of the American Brewing Company on Hudson Avenue. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1910.

The ale brewery had a capacity of over 200,000 barrels and the bottling plant had a capacity of 36,000 bottles a day. Its bottled beer took prizes at the Paris World’s Fair (1900), the Marseilles Fair (1900), and the Palestine Fair (1901).

By the early 20th century, brewing was a successful industry in the city of Rochester. In 1909, as a result of mergers with many of the smaller breweries, Rochester had nine in all: ABC; Bartholomay; Enright; Flower City; Genesee; Hathaway and Gordon; Monroe; Standard; and Weinman Brewing Companies.


American Brewing Company Fire, 19 January 1920
(416-442 Hudson Avenue)

That was to change in 1917. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting the manufacture, transport and sale of all intoxicating liquors, was passed by the U.S.  Senate on August 1st, 1917. By December 17th  of that year, the amendment had been approved by the House of Representatives and passed to the states for ratification. The amendment was ratified on January 16th 1919, and according to its provisions, would go into effect one year later. Dealing with the restrictions of Prohibition would be a fact of life for the American Brewing Company and all the breweries of Rochester.  In the next blog post of this series, we will detail how they did so.

-Christopher Brennan


For More Information:

A History of the Brewery and Liquor Industry of Rochester, N.Y. (Rochester, New York: Kearse Publishing Company, 1907).

“Mortuary Matters: Frederick Loebs,” Democrat and Chronicle, 7 March 1885, p. 7.

“Record of Deaths: Christian Meyer,” Democrat and Chronicle, 6 August 1905, p. 20.

Ruth Rosenberg-Naparsteck, “A Brief History of Brewing in Rochester,” Rochester History 54, no. 2 (Spring 1992).


Published in: on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 pm  Leave a Comment  

Out of the Loop Pt. 3: a Before and After Look at the Neighborhoods of the Inner Loop

The previous two blog posts of this series, detailing the Central-Plymouth Avenue and Corn Hill neighborhoods, highlighted some of the historic structures that were demolished in the name of the Inner Loop.

The Loop’s third section, which ran from the eastern edge of the Troup-Howell bridge along Howell Street to the corner of Union and George Streets, did not result in the razing of many iconic Rochester buildings, but it nevertheless destroyed a staggering number of residences, and drastically changed the face of the fourth ward neighborhood.


This ca. 1955 aerial photo depicts the route of the third arc of the Inner Loop from the Troup-Howell bridge along Howell Street. The route crosses South, Clinton, and Monroe Avenues before connecting with Union Street. From the collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History and Genealogy Division.

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The area in question today, after the filling in of the Inner Loop. City of Rochester Maps, 2018. 

Built between 1956 and August 1958, the Inner Loop’s first eastside segment proved its most expensive and complicated section to date. The half-mile arc’s construction leveled over 160 structures in its wake and featured four bridges as well as a complex interchange.

Destruction for the arc began in the fall of 1955. By the time the razing was completed the following summer, swaths of family homes and apartment buildings had been eaten up in the process, forcing countless citizens to move out of the neighborhood, and leaving a desolate rubble-strewn scene behind.



Howell Street in shambles. From the collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History and Genealogy Division.

Democrat and Chronicle writer, Arch Merrill, went so far to say in 1956: “where loop demolition is underway at the eastern end of the new bridge, it looks like Coventry after the blitz.”


The last house demolished for the third arc of the Inner Loop. Democrat & Chronicle, August 4, 1956.

In addition to countless residences, a number of commercial buildings also met the wrecking ball, including a couple of longstanding businesses.

Rabe’s Complete Auto Service, located at 100 Manhattan Street, was originally a harness manufacturing company when it was founded in 1893. The following century, the firm made the transition from horse wares to automobiles.

IL3_rabes auto service

Rabe’s Auto Service (100 Manhattan Street) in the 1920s. From the collection of the Albert R. Stone Negative Collection.


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The location of Rabe’s Auto Service on Manhattan Street, north of Monroe Ave. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.



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Aerial photo of the same area in 2012, prior to the loop being filled in. The Rabe’s site has been replaced with part of Strong Museum’s parking lot. City of Rochester map, 2012.

Another longtime firm to lose its headquarters was Carhart’s Photo Service and Camera Shop, located at 294 South Avenue. Founded in 1914, the family business was once the largest photo developer in Western New York .


Advertisement in Democrat & Chronicle. December 13, 1953.

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Carhart’s photo Service stood at 294 South Ave on the block between Howell and Marshall. NB: South Ave is labeled St. Paul on this map. The “South” pictured is South Street, now St Mary’s Place. “(Green)” is Clinton Ave. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.

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The same area post-Loop construction. Clinton Avenue (albeit a bridge) remains the only constant. City of Rochester Map, 2012.

Notably, one major institution in the area remained in tact amidst the destruction and construction of the Inner Loop: the Fanny Farmer factory at 7 Griffith Street.

As these maps demonstrate, the Fanny Farmer candy studio, was one of the only structures in the vicinity of the Inner Loop interchange to survive. It closed, however, in 1967.


Prior to Loop construction. The Fanny Farmer factory is the pink rectangular building on the south side of Griffith Street. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.



The same area following the development of the Inner Loop interchange. Fanny Farmer Factory in pink. Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, ca 1950s.

Almost every other building along Howell Street, Marshall Street, Griffith Street, South Street and Byron Street detailed in the 1935 map was razed.

The Loop interchange also severed Marshall and Griffith Streets. Both roads once ran from South Avenue to Monroe Avenue, but as a result of loop construction, they were both stopped just east of Clinton Avenue.

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Marshall and Griffith Streets run from South Avenue to Monroe Avenue in this ca 1935 map. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.

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Marshall Street and Griffith Streets today. City of Rochester Map, 2018. 



Undoubtedly, the thoroughfare that underwent the greatest change during this phase of loop construction, was Howell Street.


The barren path along Howell Street stretching from South Avenue to Monroe Avenue. Democrat & Chronicle. May 26, 1957.

Like Marshall and Griffith Streets, Howell Street also once ran from South Avenue all the way to Monroe Avenue, but as the loop took its route, it was all but obliterated.


The original route of Howell Street can be seen in this 1935 map. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.


The same section in 2012, prior to the loop getting filled in. A few buildings just below the Inner Loop near its intersection with Monroe are the only edifices remaining from the original Howell Street. City of Rochester maps, 2012.

The neighborhood surrounding the eastern end of the new half-mile arc, running from Monroe Ave to the intersection of Union Street and George Street (which no longer exists), did not experience as dramatic a transformation as its western reach, but still witnessed considerable destruction.

Small sections of Manhattan Street and Savannah Street were lobbed off, while most of the buildings lining the west side of Union Street up to George Street were toppled.

This City of Rochester Plat Map from 1935 and Sanborn Fire Insurance map from the late 1950s below depict how the area appeared before and just immediately after the arc’s construction.

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Manhattan, Savannah and Union Street pre-Loop. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.



The eastern section of the Inner Loop’s third arc cut through portions of Manhattan Street, Savannah Street and Union Street, but left many area buildings intact. Sanborn Fire Insurance map.

This area looks much different today, as the majority of the homes and businesses that still stood after the loop’s construction were later razed and eventually replaced with the Strong Museum property. More recently, of course, this section of the loop was filled in, which will bring further transformations to the surrounding neighborhood in the years to come.

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Strong Museum and its parking lot now occupy the site where several residences once stood. Only a stub of Savannah Street remains while Howell Street has been revived and expanded. Googlemaps, 2018. 

The next post in this series will look at the dramatic changes the Loop wrought in the neighborhood between Front Street to Scio Street…

-Emily Morry

Published in: on September 30, 2018 at 11:58 pm  Leave a Comment  

I Scream for Ice Cream: Abbott’s Frozen Custard

Anyone who has had to endure the deep snow and bone chilling cold of winter has a favorite sign of spring. For some, it is the crocus, pushing its beautiful petals above the melting ice and snow. For others, it is the robin skittering across their lawns. For many Rochesterians, it is the annual opening of the Abbott’s Frozen Custard stand at 4791 Lake Avenue, at the corner of Beach Avenue, in Charlotte. The company is said to trace its origins to 1902, and for many it is a Rochester institution, much like Kodak or Xerox. It may be a surprise, therefore, to learn that the founders were not Rochesterians and the present owner is not named Abbott.


Abbott’s Frozen Custard Stand, 4791 Lake Avenue, Charlotte
(Democrat and Chronicle, 2 June 2016)

Abbott’s was founded by two brothers, Arthur Warren Abbott (14 October 1888-14 April 1981) and Charles Harold Abbott (15 July 1876-14 March 1966). Although the family had a brief sojourn in Minnesota, their father, Frank C. Abbott, was from Maine, where he was a merchant selling dry goods (e.g., textiles, ready-to-wear clothing, and personal care items). By 1900, Frank was also selling ice, an essential ingredient in ice cream.

In 1902, Arthur and Charles started experimenting with various ice cream recipes and products in Rye (Westchester County), New York. The end result was a product that contained 14% butterfat, eggs and a smooth texture. In the ensuing decades, the brothers opened other stands in Coney Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, as well as in Rye.

The original Abbott’s in Rochester was the store at Lake and Beach Avenues in Charlotte. Arthur continued to manage the other stores from his home in Rye, so supervision of the Rochester store was undertaken by Charles, who lived in the Powers Hotel in the summer months, and then returned home for the off-season. There was no other store in Rochester until 1955, when a second Abbott’s opened across from the Rochester Airport on Brooks Avenue.

abbott-arthur and irma

Arthur and Irma Abbott and Their Horse, Blue Man
(Courier-Journal (Louisville, Ky.), 4 May 1952)

Arthur Abbott, who had always been an avid horseman, wanted to retire and concentrate on his stable. This desire likely intensified in 1952, when his horse, Blue Man, finished third in the Kentucky Derby and won the Preakness Stakes (the first two legs in horse racing’s Triple Crown). By the late 1950s, all the Abbott’s stores had closed with the exception of the two stores in Rochester. In 1958, the Abbott family sold the Rochester stores to a local couple, Leonard Schreiber (15 August 1918-23 December 1979) and his wife Thelma (3 September 1920-6 March 2003), franchisees of the Brooks Avenue store.


Leonard Schreiber, Arthur Abbott’s Successor
(Democrat and Chronicle, 24 December 1979)

It was the Schreibers who developed Abbott’s into the Rochester institution we know today. They began expanding in the late 1970s, opening franchises on West Henrietta Road, Empire Boulevard, Lyell Avenue, and West Ridge Road. By the time of Leonard Schreiber’s death in 1979, there were seven Abbott’s franchises in the Rochester area, as well as one in Wayne County. Thelma (known as “Tiby” to the family) continued to run the business after her husband’s passing. In 1989, she stepped away from day-to-day management of the company, turning control over to her daughter Gail. Today Abbott’s has 36 stores in 6 states, the lion’s share – 26 – in the greater Rochester area.   Anyone for ice cream?


For Further Information:

1880 U.S. census, St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 5, p. 14, dwelling 92, family 110, Frank C. Abbott.

1900 U.S. census, Scarborough Town, Cumberland County, Maine, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 78, p. 140B, dwelling 326, family 326, Frank C. Abbott.

1940 U.S. census, Rye, Westchester County, New York, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 60-326, p. sheet 5B, household 104, Arthur W. Abbott.

“The Abbott’s Story,” Abbott’s Frozen Custard ( : accessed 11 September 2018).

Mary Chao, “Abbott’s Looks Beyond Home,” Democrat and Chronicle, 24 April 2004, p. 14D.

Kara K. Choquette, “Abbott’s Cold War,” Democrat and Chronicle, 26 October 1997, p. 1E.

Henry W. Clune, “Seen and Heard,” Democrat and Chronicle, 15 May 1952, p. 23.

“Grand Opening Today,” [advertisement], Democrat and Chronicle, 12 August 1955, p. 7.

John Oller, “He’s Making Frozen Custard a Growing Business,” Times Union, 14 July 1977, p. 1B.

“Nifty Ways to Love Your Summer: To Every Food a Season,” Times Union,  21 June 1979, p. 1C.


-Christopher Brennan

Published in: on September 19, 2018 at 4:13 pm  Comments (1)  

Out of the Loop: a Before and After Look at the Neighborhoods of the Inner Loop, Part 2.

As we saw in the first blog post of this series, the Inner Loop dramatically altered the neighborhood surrounding Central Avenue, Allen Street, and Plymouth Avenue North. Longstanding businesses and local landmarks were erased from Rochester’s map, as were a substantial number of residences.  This trend would continue as loop construction made its journey southward in the early 1950s.

The Loop’s second arc, constructed between 1953 and 1955, continued along Plymouth Avenue south of Main Street, then curved along Troup Street in the Corn Hill neighborhood to the Genesee River.


The original second arc of the loop curved at Troup Street, towards the river, leaving the section of Plymouth Ave South below Troup intact. Democrat & Chronicle. September 10, 1954.

This Inner Loop section no longer exists today, as the Loop underwent a western expansion in the early 1970s. The following map details the area where the original second arc once ran:


Today, Plymouth Avenue South is a regular roadway and I-490 follows the path of a section of the original second arc of the Loop. Googlemaps, 2018.

The initial plans for the second section of the Inner Loop required the demolition of over 30 buildings, most of which stood on the east side of Plymouth Avenue South between Spring Street and Troup Street. A number of structures on Spring, School Alley and South Fitzhugh Street also met their demise during this phase of construction.

The photograph below shows the swath of Plymouth Ave South that was demolished for the original course of the loop:


Looking south along Plymouth Avenue from Spring Street. All the buildings on the east side of Plymouth Ave between Spring Street and Troup Street have been torn down. Times-Union. April 11, 1955.

Several apartment buildings on Plymouth Avenue South, such as the Columbia (# 60-64), The Hilton (#110) and Casa Loma (#152), were emptied of tenants and razed, along with a few businesses on Spring Street, including Granger Radio Service (#62) and Levin Painting (#72).


A not so progressive ad for Granger Radio Service. Democrat & Chronicle. November 30, 1947.

Wolford’s Books and Fine Arts Shop, at 67 Spring Street, also met the wrecking ball even though it was housed in what was reported to be the oldest standing residence on the city’s West side.


Democrat & Chronicle. November 30, 1947.

The peak-roofed frame house at 67 Spring Street was built between 1821 and 1823 by blacksmith, Caleb Bicknell. Bicknell built his primary residence, a brick structure, at 63 Spring Street directly beside the frame house. The lot containing both of Bicknell’s homes had previously housed Rochesterville’s cemetery, but upon the property’s purchase by Bicknell in 1821, the bodies were disinterred and moved to the site of the old Rochester General Hospital (now the site of the Anthony Square Apartments).

IL2_bicknell houses_1950

This circa 1950 photograph shows the brick house at 63 Spring on the left and the frame house at 67 Spring on the right. From the Collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History and Genealogy Division.

The site of the Bicknell properties at 63-67 Spring Street was in the path of the original second loop section, but is now marked by the parking lot in front of the Monroe County Jail , as these maps show:


The area in question circa 1935. 63-67 Spring Street stand between Plymouth Ave South (formerly Sophia St) and School Alley. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.


The same area in 2018. The church at bottom left remains the only constant. Spring Street ends at Plymouth Ave South and the section of School Alley pictured above no longer exists. Googlemaps, 2018.

One of the more colorful structures that was demolished for the loop’s second arc was the Plymouth Spiritualist Church, which had stood at the northeast corner of Plymouth Ave South and Troup Street since 1856.

The Spiritualist movement took root in Rochester in the late 1840s thanks to the influence of the Fox Sisters, who claimed the ability to speak to the dead. Their latter-day co-religionists moved into the Plymouth Ave church in 1906. They honored the memory of the three sisters with a 25-foot tall obelisk on the property at the suggestion of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (of Sherlock Holmes fame).  The church, which went on to become a something of a safe haven for area non-conformists in the first half of the twentieth century, was demolished in 1954. The Fox Sisters monument, meanwhile, was relocated to the southeast corner of Plymouth and Troup, where it remains today.

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Plymouth Spiritualist Church, with its signature spire at the northeast corner of Plymouth Avenue South and Troup St. From the Collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History & Genealogy Division.

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Signs for I-490 and the Inner Loop mark the northeast corner of Plymouth and Troup today.  Googlemaps, 2018.

The southeast corner of Plymouth and Troup was home to a lavish residence once owned by Civil War-era Congressman, Alfred Ely. Though the handsome estate escaped demolition during this phase of loop construction in the early 1950s, it was nevertheless torn down in 1958 to make room for a new loop-adjacent motel. As the wreckers were in the process of razing the house, however, they made a curious discovery. Inside of Alfred Ely’s circa 1849 residence, stood another house.

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Alfred Ely’s residence as it appeared in the late 19th century.

Thomas Pease, one of the first men to own a line of canal boats in Rochester, had built a modest home on the site in the 1820s. Ely bought the former Pease property in 1849, and, seeking something more substantial, built a new shell around the original residence and constructed additional wings, leaving Pease’ house completely hidden from view.

Ely’s doublewide home was replaced with the Mohawk Motor Hotel in 1959, which billed itself as being within walking distance to downtown, the Community War Memorial and several business centers. By the 1970s, however, the motel’s clientele had shifted from traveling businessmen to locals seeking both very short-term and extended stays. The edifice was repurposed as the Plymouth Park West office building in 1977.


An artist’s sketch of the Mohawk Manor Hotel with the relocated Spiritualist obelisk in full view. Democrat and Chronicle. July 26, 1958.


The same structure, now the Plymouth Park West office building, today. The Spiritualist obelisk is just out of view amidst the trees. Googlemaps, 2018.

Just down the block from the Ely homestead, lay the former residence of another local man of note, Lewis Henry Morgan. Morgan, an influential anthropologist, social theorist and lawyer, made his home at 124 South Fitzhugh Street a hub of intellectual activity in the 19th century. Not only did the house host the meetings of various elite clubs, but it was also the site where city leaders first outlined their demands for co-education at the University of Rochester.

In 1938, the significant structure at the southeast corner of Fitzhugh Street and Troup Street was honoured with a historic marker from the New York State Education Department at the prompting of the Rochester Historical Society. The building’s last tenant, Harry Potter (no relation), vacated the premises in 1953 and the edifice was torn down to make way for the Troup-Howell Bridge.


A painting of the Morgan residence by Corn Hill artist, Ralph Avery. Democrat & Chronicle. September 27, 1953.


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A patch of grass along South Fitzhugh Street  and the western approach to the Frederick Douglass-Susan B. Anthony Bridge mark the site of Morgan’s home today. Googlemaps, 2018. 

The bridge, which carried the Inner Loop over the Genesee River to Howell Street, was opened permanently in June 1955.

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The west side of the Troup-Howell Bridge as it approaches the bend at Plymouth Avenue South. The Campbell-Whittlesey House, at 123 South Fitzhugh Street, is visible on the left. Democrat & Chronicle. September 25, 1955.



The Troup-Howell Bridge was replaced with the Frederick Douglass-Susan B. Anthony Bridge in 2007. The Campbell-Whittlesey House still stands on the left. Googlemaps, 2018.

The west side of the Inner Loop complete, developers and demolition crews moved next to the city’s east side…

-Emily Morry

Published in: on August 15, 2018 at 3:57 pm  Leave a Comment  

Out of the Loop: a Before and After Look at the Neighborhoods of the Inner Loop, Part 1.

The Inner Loop has been such of fixture of Rochester’s landscape over the past half-century, that it is probably difficult for many residents to remember what downtown looked like before it came along. Many other Rochesterians have never known a life without the loop. This series will take a look at the city before and after the circular roadway at its center took shape.

The original version of the Inner Loop was built in five sections between 1952 and 1965. This series will discuss each arc in turn and document some of the changes–and losses–that each arc’s surrounding neighborhood experienced.

The first arc of the loop ran from Central Avenue near the western bank of the Genesee River to Allen Street, then down Plymouth Ave North to Main Street West. Plymouth Avenue would remain the western boundary of the Inner Loop until the roadway was expanded to its current route in 1971.

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The first arc of the loop ran from Central to Allen then down Plymouth Ave North to Main Street West. (Circa 1960 map by New York State Department of Public Works from the Collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History & Genealogy Division)

Demolition for the first .47 mile stretch of the Loop began in the spring of 1952, and from the outset it was a slow-going and costly process. Because of the age of the structures in the neighborhood, almost every building had to be dismantled brick by brick. It took two weeks just to tear down the very first house for the project at 141 Plymouth Ave North.

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Crews begin their work on the first house to be demolished for the Inner Loop at 141 Plymouth Ave North.  Democrat & Chronicle. June 17, 1952.

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Current site of 141 Plymouth. Googlemaps. 2018.

The current site of the house lies at the southwest corner of Plymouth Ave North and Allen Street.  This was not the case when the home was torn down. As a result of Loop construction, part of Allen Street was actually rerouted half a block-length southward from its original location.

This 1935 map shows Allen Street running north of the Pullman Building (now Buckingham Commons):


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On the 1935 map, the house at 141 Plymouth is visible beside the U.P. (United Presbyterian) Church. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.

This current map shows Allen Street running south of the former Pullman building/Buckingham Commons, while the Inner Loop closely follows the original course of Allen Street:

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The properties along this stretch of Plymouth Avenue North were renumbered. The 141 of 2018 is not the same location as the 141 of 1935. City of Rochester Map, 2018.

Over the course of 1952 and 1953, the rubble pile from the house at 141 Plymouth Ave was joined by the remains of several other residences along Plymouth, Allen Street, Central Ave, and State Street.

The first leg of the project also destroyed a few notable non-residential buildings.

The First United Presbyterian Church, which had stood at 131 Plymouth Avenue North since 1849, met the wrecking ball in the summer of 1952. The displaced congregation dedicated the site of their new church in Gates the following summer.


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The First United Church, which stood at 131 Plymouth Avenue North between Church Street and Allen Street, is visible on the left side of this circa 1913  photograph.


Looking along the same stretch of Plymouth Avenue North from a  slightly different angle in the midst of Inner Loop construction, 1952-1953. From the Collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History and Genealogy Division.

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The same stretch of Plymouth Ave, (which hasn’t been part of the Inner Loop since the early 1970s) as it appears today. Googlemaps, 2018.

Another mainstay of the neighborhood that became a casualty of the Inner Loop, was the former Fire Department Headquarters building.

The edifice, built in 1906, occupied the entire southern block of Central Avenue from Mill Street to Front Street. The Fire Department moved out of the expansive structure in 1938, afterwhich it served a variety of functions before being repurposed as emergency apartments during the housing shortage of the post-WWII era.

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The Central Ave headquarters circa 1924.

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The loop section and parking lot that mark the approximate spot today. Googlemaps, 2018.

Just down the block from the Fire Department Headquarters building, lay perhaps the most historic edifice that was razed for the first arc of the Loop–The Savoy Hotel.

The 125-room inn on the corner of State Street and Central Avenue was originally called the Waverly House when it was constructed in 1848, just 200 feet from the city’s first New York Central Railroad Station.

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A circa 1860s advertisement for the Waverly House. From: The Collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History and Genealogy Division.

The posh hotel once hosted noted figures such as Buffalo Bill Cody, but infamously declined to provide a room for one of Rochester’s most celebrated citizens in 1872.

When Frederick Douglass learned that his South Avenue home had been destroyed by a fire that June, he boarded the first train back to Rochester from Washington DC, and, arriving late at night, sought shelter at the Waverly House before reuniting with his displaced family in the morning. The night clerk refused Douglass service, falsely claiming that the hotel was fully booked, and the famed abolitionist set off into the rainy night in search of his loved ones.

The hotel, which was renamed the Savoy in 1894, experienced a considerable decline in the 20th century, and not all city residents were saddened by the news that the Savoy would be demolished in 1952. Initially, just the northern section of the building was razed to make way for the Loop before the rest of the structure followed suit.


The Savoy, at the corner of State and Central, as depicted in an early 20th century  postcard.

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The approximate site of the Savoy today. Googlemaps, 2018.

In addition to losing some historic buildings to the first arc of the loop, the city also lost the entire section of Central Avenue west of St. Paul Street.

This 1935 map shows the section of Central between State Street and Front Street:

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Both the Savoy Hotel and the Rochester Fire Department Headquarters are visible in this 1935 map. City of Rochester Plat Map, 1935.

This current map shows the same section of the city, with the Inner Loop having replaced the route of Central Avenue:

IlL-2018 Central

NB: The section of Mill Street seen in the middle of the previous map is also absent from the current view. City of Rochester map, 2018.

The two photographs below, the first taken in the early 1950s and the latter, from 2018, also give a sense of the radical remapping of the first arc’s neighborhood.



The Downtown United Presbyterian Church (not be confused the United Presbyterian Church on Plymouth Avenue), seen in both photos, stands at the corner of Fitzhugh Street North and Allen Street. What is left of Central Avenue runs beside the railroad tracks. From: The Collection of the Rochester Public Library Local History and Genealogy Division.

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The church remains the constant in the much changed post-Inner Loop picture. Googlemaps, 2018



The changes would continue to come with the Loop’s second arc through Corn Hill…

-Emily Morry



Published in: on August 2, 2018 at 11:16 pm  Comments (1)  

Rochester’s Scion of Yellow Journalism: Rochester’s Journal-American (June 25, 1922-July 1,1937)

Every day, hundreds of Rochesterians pass the building at the southeast corner of Andrews and St. Paul Streets and give it little thought. Today, it is the home of Cook Iron Store Company, a supplier of construction and industrial-strength equipment. A closer examination of the doorway facing St. Paul, however, reveals a curious inscription: “Journal-American Building.” What was the Journal-American? What is the story behind the curious inscription?


“Journal American” Inscription at 136 St. Paul Street
(From Upstate Magazine, Democrat and Chronicle, 22 November 1981, p. 23)


Today, Rochester has one major newspaper, the Democrat and Chronicle, but in years past it had many more. Older citizens will remember the Times Union (the afternoon paper). Further back, the city had the Rochester Herald, the Rochester Post-Express, the Rochester Union and Advertiser, and, of course, the Rochester Journal, and the Rochester Sunday American. The building on St. Paul Street was the home of the latter two publications.

The life of these two papers was brief but interesting, and they represent an entrée into the broader history of American journalism. Both papers were owned by William Randolph Hearst (April 29, 1863-August 14, 1951), the model for Charles Foster Kane in the motion picture Citizen Kane. At the time of his death, Hearst had built the largest newspaper and media company in the country, Hearst Communications.  Its publications were often cited as examples of “yellow journalism,” a form of communication specializing in human interest stories, scandals, and sensationalism. Or, in the jocular phrase of the profession, “If it bleeds, it leads!”


William Randolph Hearst
(From: Democrat and Chronicle, August 15, 1951, p. 1)

In 1922, Hearst considered running for New York State Governor, a stepping stone to the Presidency. To complement his existing newspapers in New York City, and to build support in the rest of the state, Hearst established newspapers in other portions of the state. The Rochester Journal was the afternoon newspaper, directly competing with the Gannett-owned, Times Union. The Rochester Sunday American, as the name implies, was a weekly publication, competing directly with the Sunday edition of the Democrat and Chronicle (owned by Gannett after 1928).

Starting a newspaper from scratch requires, among other things, experienced reporters, and Hearst wasn’t above stealing them from other papers. Local journalist, Curt Gerling, recounts that in 1922, mysterious invitations arrived in the mailboxes of journalists employed by other Rochester newspapers. The invitations offered free dinner and drinks at one of Rochester’s best hotels. At the conclusion of the dinner, their host clinked a fork against the closest Scotch bottle (remember, this was during Prohibition!) and said,

“Gentlemen, tonight’s party was on William Randolph Hearst. Today we purchased the Post-Express and we begin operations in 90 days. We’re looking for a staff. Anyone who wants a future in the newspaper business and double their present salaries can make an appointment with me this evening.”

Upon acquiring the papers, Hearst began an all-out drive to attract readers to his publication. At one point he was sponsoring a contest offering a car a day. He also sponsored a number of other contests offering other prizes. Free roller skates were provided to local paper boys.

Hearst’s articles were boisterous, making ridiculous, often unsupported claims. As local journalist Curt Gerling observed:

“Anyone born to English-speaking parents and worth more than $1.50 became ‘a scion of a well-known wealthy family,’ at least when his two-car crash was reported under a streamer head. … [Or] Old man Schultz, who gave a few Dutchtown friends a bottle or two of home brew became – when he was apprehended for the offense – ‘Sudsie Schultz, Beer Baron Racketeer.’”

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Advertisement for the Rochester Journal-American
(From the city directory for 1936, the last full year the paper was published)

For fifteen years, the newspaper wars between Gannett and Hearst continued unabated. On July 1, 1937 Hearst published his last issue of the newspaper and closed his Rochester and Syracuse papers. Gannett bought the Hearst paper’s circulation list, its comics and other features, and the mechanical presses in the Journal American building. In return, Gannett gave up the morning newspaper in Albany (which competed directly with the Hearst-owned paper).

Since 1940, Cook Iron Store Company has owned the entire building at 136 St. Paul Street, the Journal-American’s glory days as “Rochester’s scion of yellow journalism” long behind her.


-Christopher Brennan

For Further Information:

Curt Gerling, Smugtown, U.S.A. (1957; reprint, Rochester, New York: Plaza Publishing, 1993).

Bob Marcotte, “Journal-American Lived from 1922 to 1937,” Democrat and Chronicle, June 23, 1997, p. 5B.

Bob Minzesheimer, “Signs of Old Rochester,” Upstate Magazine, Democrat and Chronicle, November 22, 1981, p. 23-24.

Published in: on July 10, 2018 at 3:36 pm  Comments (2)  

Settin’ the Place: the Jazz Festival Neighbourhood One Hundred Years Ago

The Xerox Rochester International Jazz Festival has certainly made its mark on Rochester’s East End in the past 17 years. But the festival’s imprint represents just one of many shifts that has served to reshape the area around East Avenue, Gibbs Street and Main Street over the last century.

So what did the Jazz Festival neighbourhood look like 100 years ago?


The Festival map in 2018. [Xerox Rochester International Jazz Festival]

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A section of the same area in 1918. [City of Rochester Plat Map, 1918]

The Festival’s main drag, Gibbs Street, is rechristened ‘Jazz Street’ every June. Its outdoor stage offering free shows draws throngs of music lovers for the duration of the 9-day long event.  The parade of people, sounds and scents that typify Jazz Street represent a far cry from the Gibbs Street of 1918. Back then, the quiet, tree-lined street was populated with several lodging houses and physicians’ offices along with a few small  businesses.

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This 1918 map shows a sleepier Gibbs Street replete with several apartment buildings and lodging houses. [City of Rochester Plat Map 1918.]

Two sizeable edifices flanked the ends of Gibbs Street at its intersection with East Avenue. On the West side, stood the second location of the Genesee Valley Club, an elite social club outfitted with a restaurant and reading room. The club relocated to its current climes on East Avenue in 1922, and its former headquarters served as an office building for a number of years before it was razed and eventually replaced with Eastman Place (now the Miller Center, home to Max of Eastman Place) in 1988.


The elegant second home of the Genesee Valley Club prior to its relocation further down East Avenue. [from the collection of the Local History & Genealogy Division, Rochester Public Library]

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The Miller Center (formerly Eastman Place) in 2018.

Across from the Genesee Valley Club at the northeast corner of Gibbs Street and East Ave, lay the Wentworth Apartments, which housed 60 residents until a fire broke out in the building in 1923 and gutted its interior. Two years later, it was replaced with the Lincoln Building, which hosts the Jazz Festival ticket office in June.


The Wentworth Apartments ca 1922.


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Lincoln Building, June 2018

A few doors down from the Lincoln Building, lies the Rochester Club, which, along with Christ Church, is one of the few jazz festival venues that can actually be seen on Rochester’s map in 1918.


The Rochester Club, ca 1910-1914


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A crowd surrounds the Rochester Club building to see Herb Smith’s Freedom Trio, June 2018.

Other festival venues had yet to constructed, such as the Temple Building (built in 1925), the Harro East (built in 1936), and perhaps most significantly, the Eastman Theatre.

Concertgoers now form queues along the southeast corner of East Main and Gibbs to see the jazz festival’s headliners each June, but in 1918, the site was home to a lodging house that had once been the residence of a noted local lawyer and Civil War veteran, Captain Theodore Bacon. The handsome edifice was later razed to make way for the Theatre, which opened in 1922.


The former Bacon residence in 1919.


The Eastman Theatre during Jazz Fest, 2018.

Kitty-corner from Eastman lies the expansive parking lot which houses the festival’s Big Tent. Passers by in late June are treated to a range of sounds emanating from the makeshift music club.

One hundred years ago, Rochesterians at the same site found themselves soothed by the chimes of St. Peter’s Presbyterian Church. The church was sold in 1922, then razed and replaced with parking spaces, but the metal from its historic chimes were melted down and recast into the chimes that now ring from the chapel of the Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School.

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St Peter’s Presbyterian Church, pictured ca 1922,  stood at the northeast corner of what is now the Big Tent Parking lot.

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The Big Tent viewed from the same angle in 2018. Note the small triangular tower of 42 East Avenue that can also be seen in the ca. 1922 photo.

Rochesterians walking along the block of East Main from Gibbs to North Chestnut Street in 1918 may have also heard shoppers testing out the wares of the local Rudolph Wurlitzer dealer at 364 East Main. An advertisement for the shop boasted that its electric player pianos were “just the thing for an ice cream parlor or pool room.”


Advertisement from Democrat & Chronicle, May 19, 1920.

The same block would go on to host a number of other music emporiums, including Taylor Piano Company, Music Lovers Shoppe and Levis Music Store, before these buildings were razed over the course of the 20th century and replaced with additional parking spaces.

Across the street from the Big Tent parking lot, the southern stretch of East Main from Gibbs Street to North Chestnut Street showcases an array of food trucks that provide sustenance to thousands of concert goers from Rochester and beyond during the festival.

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The Jazz Festival’s outdoor food court on East Main Street, June 2018.

Interestingly, in 1918, this same block also drew food and drink-seeking Rochesterians.

Multiple grocers, including the Quality Market (391 East Main) and Mahatcke Brothers & Company (375 East Main), lined the street.

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Advertisement from Democrat & Chronicle, February 7, 1918.

One local grocer, Frankfurt & Brewster (389 East Main), suffered a temporary closure in 1918 for selling wheat flour without the proper substitutes as required by the rationing regulations enacted during WWI.

In addition to picking up powdered grains and produce, consumers on East Main could indulge their sweet tooths at Anna Vardis’ bakery (401 East Main) and wet their whistles at Burns & McCarthy’s Saloon (405 East Main). Savvy shoppers could hunt for deals at Price’s Fish Market (385 East Main), where flounder and haddock were on hand for 14 cents a pound. Fish fans seeking to treat themselves could opt for fresh caught salmon or lake trout for 32 cents a pound.


Advertisement from Democrat & Chronicle, April 10, 1918.

Readers who frequent the festival might marvel at the prices of East Main Street’s food fare in 1918, but these same readers would do well to remind themselves that the city’s inhabitants at that time did not have access to culinary delicacies such as poutine, nor did they have the Jazz Festival.

-Emily Morry


Published in: on June 27, 2018 at 8:18 pm  Comments (2)